Friday, April 15, 2005

Mentruasi di masa lampau

Dongeng tentang haid
Menstruasi adalah perihal yang di masa lalu, sarat dengan anggapan tabu. Mary Daly mengakui bahwa "Sejarah menunjukkan bagaimana di masa lalu, para pria merasa takut, benci dan cemburu kepada wanita yang sedang mengalaminya. Perempuan menstruasi disebut dekil, sakit, labil, dan tidak suci. Darah haid menjadi semacam perlambang rasa malu ( Gyn/Ecology 1979). Wanita-wanita haid dikeluarkan dari masyarakat, agar mereka tidak menyebarkan infeksi kepada para laki-laki, mengotori makanan atau membuat bercak di cermin dengan nafas mereka. Mereka juga harus dikurung dalam gubuk haid.

Ajaran kaum ortodox Yahudi, mensyaratkan sebuah upacara agama yang dinamakan mikveh, dimana seorang wanita harus mandi dan berendam setelah masa mens mereka selesai, untuk membuat ' bersih' lagi. Hal tersebut juga disyaratkan pada pengantin perempuan, sebelum melakukan upacara pernikahan. Torah juga melarang hubungan badan bagi para pasangan, disaat si istri sedang dalam masa menstruasi.

Format tabu yang dipasang pada para wanita haid, serupa pada wanita yang sedang melahirkan bayi, sebab mereka sama-sama dalam kondisi mengeluarkan darah. Pada saat seorang wanita selesai melahirkan, adalah kondisi dimana mereka tidak bisa langsung “disentuh”. Sehingga " tabu haid" adalah suatu tabu pada saat para wanita berada dalam keadaan pergantian darah.

Di masa sebelum masehi, dimana Tuhan dianggap “berkelamin” perempuan, dan para Dewi masih dipuja, semua wanita dan semua hal-hal yang feminin, menikmati suatu status yang lebih tinggi dibanding sebelumnya. Darah haid perempuan disebut 'Moon-Gift dari Dewi' dan memiliki nilai simbolik yang tinggi. Budaya agrikultur yunani kuno, mencampurkan darah haid dengan bibit tanaman yang akan ditanam, sebagai 'pupuk terbaik'. Sangat kontras dengan apa yang akhirnya dialami oleh para wanita yang sedang menstruasi beberapa tahun kemudian. (The Women's History of the World by Rosalind Miles)

Siklus bulanan pada wanita, juga dianggap memiliki hubungan lekat dengan bulan. Bulan memiliki irama alam; air surut dan arus dari semua makhluk hidup. Sebelum cahaya buatan ditemukan, para wanita dikabarkan pada keadaan subur tepat pada saat bulan purnama dan menstruasi pada saat bulan baru. Suku Maori menyebut haid dengan "matamarama" yang berarti penyakit bulan dan di berbagai belahan dunia ini, haid dan bulan adalah kata yang sama. Bulan, dalam terminologi astrologi, melambangkan wanita dan mengungkapkan sekaligus menguraikan perasaan emosional alami kita.

Gyn/Ecology (1979) Mary Daly
The Wise Wound: Menstruation & Everywoman (1978)Penelope Shuttle & Peter Redgrove
Menstruation & Menopause by Paula Weidegar - The Women's Press
History's Mistress (1985) Paula Weidegar
The Descent of Woman (1972) Elaine Morgan
The Women's History of the World by Rosalind Miles (Palladin)


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